A review of feminism and gender equality in the 1990s

We, along with others, have documented and commented on these trends in several places see links below. One issue we have addressed is the complexity of these trends: But what we have struggled with most may well be the timing of these trends. Why did the equalizing trend of the s and s give way to stalled progress beginning in the s?

A review of feminism and gender equality in the 1990s

Political philosophers responded to these developments in diverse ways. During that period women in many academic disciplinesincluding philosophy, began to question why there were almost no works by women in the canons of their disciplines and why there were so few women in their professions.

A review of feminism and gender equality in the 1990s

For feminist philosophers, part of the answer lay in the generally disparaging view of women that pervaded Western culture and was consequently reflected in the thinking of most male philosophers: Eventually women philosophers were led to ask more-pointed questions: What has philosophy left out or misunderstood because of those attitudes?

The most obvious results, as women philosophers noted, were omissions. Feminist philosophers soon came to realize, however, that the problem they had identified could not be solved by filling in a few gaps—e.

Because of the historical sexism of Western culture and because the paradigmatic philosopher was conceived of as highly rational, dispassionate, and independent, the female philosopher was virtually a contradiction in terms.

If bias against women was not incidental to philosophy but in fact one of its defining features, the potential ramifications of a feminist critique were boundless.

Different topics would be salient; different assumptions would make sense; different methods would be appropriate. For these philosophers, pursuing a gender-based critique of philosophy to its logical conclusion would transform the discipline and give rise to a distinctively feminist approach to philosophical problems.

The tenets that feminist philosophy extracted from those sources included the following. The domination or subordination of women in any social setting or in any walk of life is a political issue, not a private one. Because knowledge is produced by societies—i.

Those themes underlie contemporary feminist scholarship in all fields of philosophy. Feminist social and political philosophy The earliest feminist philosophers examined gender bias in traditional social and political institutions.

Much of their analysis concerned sexual and family relations, which were then considered private or personal matters that could not or should not be addressed by political means. Eventually three major schools of feminist political theory arose, each emphasizing a distinctive subset of issues: Noting that differences in the ways in which girls and boys are raised served to channel women and men into different and unequal social roles, they advocated gender-neutral forms of education and child rearing.

A review of feminism and gender equality in the 1990s

They particularly focused on protecting and extending the rights that enabled women to pursue self-chosen goals, such as reproductive rights including the right to legally obtain an abortion and rights to full educational and economic opportunities.

Criticizing traditional Marxism for exaggerating the importance of waged labour outside the home, socialist feminists insisted that the unpaid caregiving and homemaking that women are expected to perform are equally indispensable forms of labour and that the sexual division of labour that assigns most domestic work to women is exploitative.

They also objected to the double day of work that burdens most women who have children and who work outside the home. Likewise, they condemned the economic dependency and insecurity of stay-at-home mothers and the low salaries of child-care workers.

According to radical feminists, male heterosexuality objectifies the female body and makes the domination and degradation of women a source of erotic stimulation. Liberal, socialist, and radical feminism continue to challenge standard philosophical assumptions about the scope of politics and the nature of justice.

Yet, arguably, each of them rests on a flawed conception of gender. Much current work in feminist social and political philosophy—specifically in black feminist theory, queer theory, and feminist human rights theory—takes on these urgent problems.

In those intimate relationships, the parties respond to each other as unique individuals, not merely as typical human beings. Although they are vulnerable to each other in many of the same ways that strangers are, they are far more vulnerable to insensitivity, indifference, unkindness, and the threat of abandonment.

Moreover, personal relationships are not always reciprocal. Because one of the individuals may be temporarily or chronically dependent on the other for sustenance, the other may shoulder a greater share of the burdens of the relationship. In those contextsthen, moral reciprocity is not reducible to equal respect or equal contribution.

The focus on interpersonal morality showed that general moral rules, which some traditional ethical theories strove to develop, were rather crude instruments for conducting a moral life.Feminism And Gender Equality In The 's, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.

For most people, the terms “evangelical” and “feminism” are contradictory. “Evangelical” invokes images of conservative Christians known for their strict interpretation of the Bible, as well as their support of social conservatism and traditional gender roles.

Feminism And Gender Equality In The 's Overall, the rights and status of women have improved considerably in the last century; however, gender equality has . Airline sex discrimination policy controversy; Boys are stupid, throw rocks at them!

controversy; International Men's Day; Meninism. Feminism? You want feminism? Which brand would you like? Feminism -- Definitions of Terms. Index of Terms. Preamble. Whatever positive image the word feminist may have had, it has been tarnished by those who have made it their own, and I, for one, am content to leave the militants in full possession of the term.

— Dale O'Leary in her book. Read an excerpt from Allison Yarrow's new book, '90s Bitch,' on how the media and culture of that decade hurt the fight for gender equality. 'The more women assumed power, the more power was taken.

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