Saul McLeodpublishedupdated Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm. However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants. This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct.
Saul McLeodpublishedupdated Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm. However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants.
This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct. In Britain ethical guidelines for research are published by the British Psychological Society and in America by the American Psychological Association. The purpose of these codes of conduct is to protect research participants, the reputation of psychology and psychologists themselves.
Moral issues rarely yield a simple, unambiguous, right or wrong answer. It is therefore often a matter of judgement whether the research is justified or not. For example, it might be that a study causes psychological or physical discomfort to participants, maybe they suffer pain or perhaps even come to serious harm.
On the other hand the investigation could lead to discoveries that benefit the participants themselves or even have the potential to increase the sum of human happiness.
Rosenthal and Rosnow also talk about the potential costs of failing to carry out certain research. Who is to weigh up these costs and benefits?
Who is to judge whether the ends justify the means? Finally, if you are ever in doubt as to whether research is ethical or not it is worthwhile remembering that if there is a conflict of interest between the participants and the researcher it is the interests of the subjects that should take priority.
Studies must now undergo an extensive review by an institutional review board US or ethics committee UK before they are implemented. All UK research requires ethical approval by one or more of the following: Committees review proposals to assess if the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of possible risk of physical or psychological harm.
Some of the more important ethical issues are as follows: Informed Consent Whenever possible investigators should obtain the consent of participants. They also need to know what it is that they are agreeing to. In other words the psychologist should, so far as is practicable explain what is involved in advance and obtain the informed consent of participants.
Before the study begins the researcher must outline to the participants what the research is about, and then ask their consent i. However, it is not always possible to gain informed consent.
Where it is impossible for the researcher to ask the actual participants, a similar group of people can be asked how they would feel about taking part. If they think it would be OK then it can be assumed that the real participants will also find it acceptable.
This is known as presumptive consent.
Participants must be given information relating to: Statement that participation is voluntary and that refusal to participate will not result in any consequences or any loss of benefits that the person is otherwise entitled to receive. Purpose of the research. All foreseeable risks and discomforts to the participant if there are any.
These include not only physical injury but also possible psychological.
Procedures involved in the research. Benefits of the research to society and possibly to the individual human subject.
Length of time the subject is expected to participate. Person to contact for answers to questions or in the event of injury or emergency. Debrief After the research is over the participant should be able to discuss the procedure and the findings with the psychologist.
They must be given a general idea of what the researcher was investigating and why, and their part in the research should be explained. Participants must be told if they have been deceived and given reasons why. They must be asked if they have any questions and those questions should be answered honestly and as fully as possible.Research on animals is an ethical topic and concern to researchers in the psychology field.
Testing on animals is a controversial issue and in response to this ethical dilemma the American Psychological Association (APA), is a specialized association [ ]. Consequentialism and deontology will be critically discussed on their impact on psychological research.
The following areas will be discussed on how the ethical theories link with the BPS (British Psychological Society) guidelines. How current studies have impacted on both philosophical ideas and. In Britain ethical guidelines for research are published by the British Psychological Society and in America by the American Psychological regardbouddhiste.com purpose of these codes of conduct is to protect research participants, the reputation of psychology and psychologists regardbouddhiste.com: Saul Mcleod.
This essay will explain two different types of methods used in psychological research, case studies and experiments, and give two examples of each, and one demonstrating ethical concerns. The evaluation of the importance of ethical issues raised within research will be a concluding consideration.
Does a study involve ethical issues such as deception, privacy, psychological and physical harm. Gender bias - If research is biased towards men or women it does not provide a clear view of the behavior that has been regardbouddhiste.com: Saul Mcleod.
Psychological harm in particular instances may be difficult to define; nevertheless, its definition and means for reducing or eliminating it remain the responsibility of the investigator.
When the investigator is in doubt about the possible harmful effects of the research procedures, consultation should be .