In CE, in recognition of his claims to prophethood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city of Medina. At the time the local Arab tribes of Aus and Khazraj dominated the city, and were in constant conflict. Medinans saw in Muhammad an impartial outsider who could resolve the conflict.
Alessandra Di Cataldo Alessandra Cataldo Alessandra Di Cataldo The rise of political Islam from the s to the present day Political Islam, or Islamism, has been on the rise in the Middle East since the s, owing to a combination of certain political, economic, and social circumstances.
While the movement has taken on different forms in various countries, for example Hezbollah in Lebanon, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the FIS in Algeria, the overall trend throughout the region has been similar. Political Islam became influential in the early twentieth century with the foundation of the Muslim Brotherhood March,p.
This essay will discuss the political, economic, and social causes for the rise of political Islam in the region since the s. It is first necessary to define 'political Islam,' and many scholars have put forth their views as to its meaning.
Hirschkind, for example, defines political Islam as an 'irruption of Islamic religion into the secular domain of politics' Hirschkind,p. March also describes political Islam as a 'transnational, global movement' that has taken on different forms in 'specific national contexts' March,p.
Islamism varies from state to state, but the overarching ideals and values remain the same; Dekmejian, for example, argues that it has occurred 'virtually in every Islamic society or community regardless of size or political, economic, and cultural environment' Dekmejian,p.
Many elements have led to the rise of political Islam since the s, but this essay will focus on three primary causal factors, the first of which is political. Growing authoritarianism and the failure of secularism and nationalism in the Middle East, in conjunction with the Arab defeat in the Arab-Israeli War, led to an opening of political space which was filled by the Islamists.
The second factor is economic; the unstable economic circumstances of the region as a whole, as well as growing unemployment, poverty, rural to urban migration, and unjust wealth distribution within countries, gave Islamists the opportunity to provide what the state often could not.
This leads to the third factor to be discussed, which is social; Islamists created large networks of professionals, students, migrants, and the middle class, among others, by appealing to a growing sense of alienation from the distant elites ruling the state.
Islamists were also involved in charity, building mosques, providing healthcare, publishing, and promoting public morals, making them especially popular.
The failure of postcolonial governments to rule effectively led to an increase in popularity for the Islamist opposition.
They increasingly alienated their citizens, leading to a decline in their legitimacy, which caused them to become more desperate to stay in power, and they therefore became more authoritarian and repressive of the secular opposition, which 'created the political space' for Islamists to become successful Ayoob,p.
In fact, by putting so much effort into keeping Islamists out of power by 'denying them a popular vote and by brutal suppression' Knudsen,p. Another political reason for the rise of political Islams March and Armborst argue, is that this movement did not want to destroy the existing institutions of government, but merely to co-opt them.
March notes that 'political Islamists have tended to accept uncritically some of the main features of modern politics, particularly the state, the institutions of centralized bureaucratic domination, and the use of technology Hallaq ' March,p. Similarly, Armborst contends that 'political Islam seeks to capture the state apparatus together with its institutions like universities, police, courts, armed forces, and social services Armborst,p.
The people's disillusionment with the ruling governments made the rise of political Islam as an alternative to the existing postcolonial regimes all the more likely Esposito,p. The final aspect of the political causes for the rise of Islamism is the crippling Arab defeat in the Arab-Israeli War.
Knudsen offers this failure on the part of pan-Arabism as a reason for the timing of the rise of political Islam in the s Knudsen,p. Dekmejian concurs, arguing that the defeat 'produced shock waves affecting both Arabs and non-Arab Muslims in engendering feelings of fear, insecurity, and inferiority' and led to a decrease in the legitimacy of the ruling elites Dekmejian,p.
Economic factors caused the rise in political Islam as well; although there was a drastic increase in oil money in the region, this only benefitted some countries, and also caused economic instability.
These financial issues led to frustration among the population, in turn creating an opportunity for Islamists to gain followers.If you read only one book on political Islam, this should be it.
Olivier Roy, an authority on the complex politics of Afghanistan, has turned his attention to the phenomenon of Islamic radicalism, The Failure of Political Islam | Foreign Affairs. Political Islam in Post-Conflict Algeria.
The partisan MSP is not the only Islamic tendency affected by the antipathy to parties and political Islam in Algeria.
when the Algerian case is cast as another example of the “failure of Islamism,” it elides the informal spaces where contestations of political-religious authority occur. Has Political Islam Failed In Algeria? Essays: Over , Has Political Islam Failed In Algeria? Essays, Has Political Islam Failed In Algeria?
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The term ‘Political Islam’ is an academic concoction. It works as an analytical umbrella under which political analysts club together various political tendencies that claim to be using Muslim.
Political Islam in Algeria CEPS Working Document No. /May Amel Boubekeur Abstract The recent legislative elections of May in Algeria have shown how 1 On the question of the failure of political Islam to impose an Islamic state on the regime, see, among.
Al Qiyam called for a more dominant role for Islam in Algeria's legal and political systems and opposed what it saw as Western practices in the social and cultural life of Algerians.
This proved to be the most difficult challenge for the immediate post-independent regimes as they tried to incorporate an Islamic national identity alongside.