Setzer Introduction In recent times, critical opinion has appeared concerning the use of computers by children and adolescents, especially in education at the primary and high school levels. In this essay, we begin by citing and summarizing some of the arguments given in favor of the use of computers by children and in education.
With the gradual rise of more complex civilizations in the river valleys of Egypt and Babylonia, knowledge became too complicated to transmit directly from person to person and from generation to generation.
To be able to function in complex societies, man needed some way of accumulating, recording, and preserving his cultural heritage.
So with the rise of trade, government, and formal religion came the invention of writing, by about BC. Because firsthand experience in everyday living could not teach such skills as writing and reading, a place devoted exclusively to learning--the school--appeared.
And with the school appeared a group of adults specially designated as teachers--the scribes of the court and the priests of the temple. The children were either in the vast majority who continued to learn exclusively by an informal apprenticeship or the tiny minority who received formal schooling.
The method of learning was memorization, and the motivation was the fear of harsh physical discipline. On an ancient Egyptian clay tablet discovered by archaeologists, a child had written: In the 1st century AD, the historian Flavius Josephus wrote: The main concern was the study of the first five books of the Old Testament--the Pentateuch--and the precepts of the oral tradition that had grown up around them.
At age 13, brighter boys could continue their studies as disciples of a rabbi, the "master" or "teacher. Ancient Greece The Greek gods were much more down-to-earth and much less awesome than the remote gods of the East.
Because they were endowed with human qualities and often represented aspects of the physical world--such as the sun, the moon, and the sea--they were closer to man and to the world he lived in.
The Greeks, therefore, could find spiritual satisfaction in the ordinary, everyday world. They could develop a secular life free from the domination of a priesthood that exacted homage to gods remote from everyday life. The goal of education in the Greek city-states was to prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen.
The nature of the city-states varied greatly, and this was also true of the education they considered appropriate. The goal of education in Sparta, an authoritarian, military city-state, was to produce soldier-citizens.
On the other hand, the goal of education in Athens, a democratic city-state, was to produce citizens trained in the arts of both peace and war. The boys of Sparta were obliged to leave home at the age of 7 to join sternly disciplined groups under the supervision of a hierarchy of officers.
From age 7 to 18, they underwent an increasingly severe course of training. They walked barefoot, slept on hard beds, and worked at gymnastics and other physical activities such as running, jumping, javelin and discus throwing, swimming, and hunting. They were subjected to strict discipline and harsh physical punishment; indeed, they were taught to take pride in the amount of pain they could endure.
At 18, Spartan boys became military cadets and learned the arts of war. At 20, they joined the state militia--a standing reserve force available for duty in time of emergency--in which they served until they were 60 years old.
The typical Spartan may or may not have been able to read. But reading, writing, literature, and the arts were considered unsuitable for the soldier-citizen and were therefore not part of his education.
Music and dancing were a part of that education, but only because they served military ends. Unlike the other Greek city-states, Sparta provided training for girls that went beyond the domestic arts.
The girls were not forced to leave home, but otherwise their training was similar to that of the boys. They too learned to run, jump, throw the javelin and discus, and wrestle. The Athenians apparently made sport of the physique prized in Spartan women, for in a comedy by the Athenian playwright Aristophanes a character says to a Spartan girl: How lovely thou art, how blooming thy skin, how rounded thy flesh!
Thou mightest strangle a bull.A Review of Arguments for the Use of Computers in Elementary Education. Valdemar W.
In recent times, critical opinion has appeared concerning the use of computers by children and adolescents, especially in education at the primary and high school levels.
Computers in Education. A Review of Arguments for the Use of Computers in Elementary Education. Valdemar W. Setzer. Introduction. In recent times, critical opinion has appeared concerning the use of computers by children and adolescents, especially in education at the primary and high school levels.
Mission Statement. The mission of the Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching is to: Advance the intellectual and professional development of students and faculty through research, critical reflection and dialogue, civic responsibility, and transformative leadership;.
The California Department of Education provides leadership, assistance, oversight and resources so that every Californian has access to an education that meets world-class standards.
Before there was Phonics or Whole Language, there was the "Alphabet method," sometimes called "syllabification," where students were taught the letters of the alphabet followed by rote memorization and then combination of simple two-letter syllables, like BA BE BI BO BU and AB EB IB OB UB.
Education in the United States is provided by public, private and home schools.. State governments set overall educational standards, often mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise, usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities.
Funding comes from the state, local, and federal government.
Private schools are generally free to determine.