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Advanced Search Abstract Since the first usage of antimicrobials, the burden of resistance among bacteria has progressively increased and has accelerated within the last 10 years. Antibiotic resistance genes were present at very low levels prior to the introduction of antibiotics and it is largely the selective pressure of antibiotic use and the resulting exposure of bacteria, not only in humans but also in companion and food animals and the environment, which has caused the rise.
The increasing mobility across the globe of people, food and animals is another factor. The response made by society to reduce resistance involves surveillance, reduced usage, improved infection control and the introduction of new antimicrobial agents.
Although efforts are being made in all these areas, there is an urgent need to increase the effectiveness of these interventions or some bacterial infections will become difficult if not impossible to treat reliably. The removal of the scourge of premature death due to bacterial infection is now taken for granted in the developed world, but this is threatened by the development of resistance to antimicrobials.
Despite this, we have seen the development, even since their early use, of antibiotic resistance in many bacterial species. This was closely followed by the accumulation of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and macrolides in the s, creating strains of S.
In contrast, vancomycin has been used for nearly 50 years and yet significant numbers of S. Antimicrobial resistance thesis, the emergence of resistance to antibiotics is associated with their use, although the precise correlation can be highly variable.
The mechanisms by Antimicrobial resistance thesis antibiotic resistance can both appear de novo and spread among medically important bacteria are now better understood. It is clear that the horizontal gene pool, which consists of genes present on a plethora of diverse mobile genetic elements, results in the lateral transfer of genes both among strains of an individual species and among different species of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and is the process whereby we arrive at multiresistant bacteria.
The engine driving this process is the selective pressure of antimicrobial use; this is obvious in the hospital environment where clear relationships between antimicrobial use and the emergence of multiresistant strains can be seen.
Since the publication of the Swann report inthere has been recognition that the agricultural usage of antimicrobials also drives the development of resistance.
The recent control of antimicrobial usage for growth promotion and mass treatment in the European Union EU has resulted in reductions in resistance rates, suggesting that a significant selective effect is associated with this use.
Specific examples of this can be seen in countries such as Denmark and Sweden where tight control of the agricultural usage of antimicrobials has resulted in lower levels of resistance in food animals.
The costs associated with antimicrobial resistance are multiple; inadequate or failed treatment of patients leading to morbidity and mortality is a huge human cost. In addition, the loss of cheaper, older agents for effective therapy and the need to acquire more expensive ones are easily recognized costs.
However, this cost pales into insignificance when compared with the cost of the disruption of the delivery of healthcare services caused by multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria cost of isolation, cross-infection control and cancelled procedures and, as this cost is not easily recognized or accounted for, it is frequently forgotten.
Emerging resistance—challenges from specific pathogens S. These problems were solved initially by the introduction of methicillin and then by the introduction of the related semi-synthetic penicillins, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin, which resulted in a marked decline in these strains.
Interestingly, despite an early surge in cases in the s, MRSA rates generally fell in Europe through to the early s. The cause of this decline is not clear, but may relate to reductions in the prescribing of tetracyclines which it has been argued were a co-selecting agent and vigorous infection control.
However, the lull was not to last for long. Few routine surveillance data exist internationally for MRSA, but prevalence data do exist for many countries and reveal a wide variation in the prevalence of MRSA as a proportion of significant S.
It is now clear that this event has occurred on a number of occasions as there are multiple types of SCCmec cassette arrangements, which represent separate horizontal gene transfers.
The SCCmec element has a unique mechanism of mobilization by which it excises and integrates into the new host chromosome, the element itself carrying recombinases for the cassette ccrAB and ccrC. The first resistant strains identified were designated vancomycin-intermediate S.
An early in vitro experiment showed that it was possible to transfer and express vanA in S. Strains that have this system are unlikely to receive foreign DNA from bacteria such as enterococci, and S.
The emergence, therefore, of true community-associated strains CA-MRSA since the late s is a further challenge to the effective treatment of S.
The role of PVL toxin in producing the severe clinical manifestations that are seen is controversial; a recent report suggested that it may be only one of several important toxins. However, resistance to the macrolides is common which may also undermine the clinical efficacy of clindamycinand there are increasing reports of resistance to older oral agents which will pose substantial problems in the future for the empirical treatment of moderate or serious S.
The role of companion or agricultural animals as reservoirs for both hospital-acquired strains and CA-MRSA is increasingly recognized.Antibiotic resistance essay papers. essay assignment essay mike brown incident gorgon s head essay about myself yale epe senior essay introduction thesis description essay redirect mail special circumstances essay upper right corner essay 5 page research paper on human body systems.
Abstract. By , it is expected that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will overtake cancer to become the world’s biggest killer. As the pharmaceutical industry spends less on antibiotic research and development, universities have an increasing role to play.
Approval of the thesis: ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION STUDIES IN HOSPITALS Submitted by ANNOUR MOHAMAD ALALEM in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry, Middle East Technical University by, Prof.
Dr. Canan Özgen. Our "Antibiotic Resistance" experts can research and write a NEW, ONE-OF-A-KIND, ORIGINAL dissertation, thesis, or research proposal—JUST FOR YOU—on the precise "Antibiotic Resistance" topic of your choice.
AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 21 Community Perception of relation of Behavioural and Social Environment with Antibiotic Resistance (Paper I) 21 Healthcare Professionals’ Perceptions of relation of Behavioural and Social Environment with Antibiotic Resistance (Paper II) 23 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 25 Bottery, Michael J () The Sociality and Evolution of Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance.
PhD thesis, University of York.