Bangus or milkfish cultivation systems in

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Bangus or milkfish cultivation systems in

Body colour silvery on belly and sides grading to olive-green or blue on back. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins pale or yellowish with dark margins. Single dorsal fin with 2 spines and soft rays.

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Short anal fin with 2 spines and soft rays, close to caudal fin. Caudal fin large and deeply forked with large scale flaps at base in adults. Pectoral fins low on body with axillary inner basal scales.

Bangus or milkfish cultivation systems in

Pelvic fins abdominal with axillary scales and 11 or 12 rays. Scales cycloid, small and smooth, on lateral line. No scutes modified pointed scales along belly.

Mouth small and terminal without teeth. Lower jaw with small tubercle at tip, fitting into notch in upper jaw. No bony gular plate between arms of lower jaw. Four branchiostegal rays supporting underside of gill covers. Gill rakers fine and numerous. Attains typical length of 1 m but may reach maximum length of 1.

Culture methods in a variety of enclosures are constantly being improved upon. Since the s, large investments have been made in the Philippines as well as in Taiwan Province of China, Indonesia and Hawaii in terms of infrastructure, research, credit and training in support to the milkfish industry.

Government agencies and fisheries institutions were also involved in a national effort to intensify milkfish farming from the mid s until now. In this work, research and development on farming systems, breeding and fry production technologies was carried out.

There was no attempt at genetic improvement but fry translocation and trade occurred between Indonesia, Taiwan Province of China and the Philippines and geographic variations and heterogeneity were documented.

More recently, unconfirmed reports indicate that milkfish are now being cultured to fingerling or juvenile size in the South Pacific Islands and in Singapore as tuna bait. Milkfish farming was previously a traditional industry, with little emphasis on producing sexually mature, reproductively active fish in captivity.

The traditional milkfish industry depended totally on an annual restocking of farm ponds with fingerlings reared from wild-caught fry. As a result, the industry suffered from regional, seasonal and annual variations in fry availability. These variations are generally unpredictable, and may be quite large over short periods of time.

Thus, the central problem faced by the international milkfish industry was to find a way to produce a reliable, adequate, high quality supply of milkfish fry that was not subject to large unpredictable variations in time and space.

During the past decade, much progress has been made, particularly in regard to milkfish propagation and the mass production of fry by private hatcheries, research institutions and government agencies.

Instead of relying on wild-caught fry, milkfish farms in the Philippines, Taiwan Province of China and Indonesia now obtain the majority of their fry from hatcheries, mainly due to the significant shortage of wild-caught fry.

Adults occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands. They are well developed, migratory, large up to 1. Milkfish only spawn in fully saline waters. The activity is most often correlated with the new or full moon phases, takes place mostly in the night and, in most regions, has one or two seasonal peaks.

In the natural environment, spawning takes place near coral reefs during the warm months of the year, and populations near the equator spawn year-round. Juveniles and adults eat a wide variety of relatively soft and small food items, from microbial mats to detritus, epiphytes and zooplankton.

Milkfish is a heterosexual fish; hermaphrodism has not been reported. In natural spawning stocks the sex ratio is almost equal, with a slightly higher amount of females. The determination of sex is very difficult, because there are no easily identifiable morphological differences between males and females; however, the pheromone PGF2a prostaglandin has been found to be an effective way to identify mature male milkfish.

Egg division begins an hour after and hatching occurs hours after spawning. In the wild, eggs are probably released in deeper oceanic waters and in the outer reef region.

Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands mangroves, estuaries during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. In the wild, juveniles are found in mangrove areas and coastal lagoons, and even travel upriver into lakes; they go back to sea when they get too large for the nursery habitat, or when they are about to mature sexually.ESTIMATED GLYCEMIC LOAD™ Glycemic load is a way of expressing a food or meal's effect on blood-sugar levels.

Fish for the Millions - Milkfish Aquaculture, Sarangani, Philippines | Jürgen Freund Photography

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During the drying period of pond bottom systems, all dikes should be checked for leakages. H.R., The Culture of Lab-lab, the natural food of the Milkfish or Bangus, Chanos chanos (Forskal) fry and fingerlings under cultivation.

Readings on Aquaculture Practices. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, May A recent innovation in bangus. A table is presented giving calculated weights for milkfish in the length range 80– mm, which can be used to compute relative condition factors. Data were grouped according to lengths, province, food system, and months for separate comparisons.

A grilled bangus (milkfish) in the Philippines. The milkfish is an important seafood in Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. Because milkfish is notorious for being much bonier than other food fish, deboned milkfish, called "boneless bangús " in the Philippines, has become popular in stores and markets.

has good farming potential as milkfish can be raised in different production systems, depending on the available resources. In data started to be collected on milkfish farming and since then a.

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Bangus fingerlings (1 – 2 inches) P per fingerling 15, fingerlings Fish nets Fig. The volume and prices of fingerlings, as well as, fishnets for 10, sq.m. pond. The bangus fingerlings need five (5) types of commercial feeds in order grow in good-quality for sale.

Milkfish - WikiVisually