As Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Significance of Geophysical investigation techniques to provide subsurface information without digging or drilling. Recent innovations in NDT Non Destructive Testing to address issues regarding safety, equipment reliability and environmental protection.
Etymology[ edit ] The word Caspian is derived from the name of the Caspian ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia. The Iranian city of Qazvin shares the root of its name with that of the sea. Turkic languages refer to the lake as Khazar Sea. In all these cases, the second word simply means "sea", and the first word refers to the historical Khazars who had a large empire based to the north of the Caspian Sea between the 7th and 10th centuries.
It became landlocked about 5. During warm and dry climatic periods, the landlocked sea almost dried up, depositing evaporitic sediments like halite that were covered by wind-blown deposits and were sealed off as an evaporite sink when cool, wet climates refilled the basin.
Comparable evaporite beds underlie the Mediterranean. Due to the current inflow of fresh water, the Caspian Sea is a freshwater lake in its northern portions, and is most saline on the Iranian shore, where the catchment basin contributes little flow.
Yellow area indicates the approximate drainage area. The Caspian is divided into three distinct physical regions: The Middle—Southern boundary is the Apsheron Threshold, a sill of tectonic origin between the Eurasian continent and an oceanic remnant,  that runs through Zhiloi Island and Cape Kuuli.
Differences between the three regions are dramatic. A second affluent, the Ural Riverflows in from the north, and the Kura River flows into the sea from the west.
In the past, the Amu Darya Oxus of Central Asia in the east often changed course to empty into the Caspian through a now-desiccated riverbed called the Uzboy Riveras did the Syr Darya farther north. The Central Asian steppes stretch across the northeast coast, while the Caucasus mountains hug the western shore.
The biomes to both the north and east are characterized by cold, continental deserts. Conversely, the climate to the southwest and south are generally warm with uneven elevation due to a mix of highlands and mountain ranges ; the drastic changes in climate alongside the Caspian have led to a great deal of biodiversity in the region.
Ogurja Ada is the largest island. It is often listed as the world's largest lake, although it is not a freshwater lake. It contains about 3.
The Caspian was once part of the Tethys Oceanbut became landlocked about 5. Thus the Caspian ecosystem is a closed basinwith its own sea level history that is independent of the eustatic level of the world's oceans. The level of the Caspian has fallen and risen, often rapidly, many times over the centuries.
Some Russian historians[ who? Inthe water level was 28 metres 92 feet below sea level. Over the centuries, Caspian Sea levels have changed in synchrony with the estimated discharge of the Volga, which in turn depends on rainfall levels in its vast catchment basin. Precipitation is related to variations in the amount of North Atlantic depressions that reach the interior, and they in turn are affected by cycles of the North Atlantic oscillation.
Thus levels in the Caspian Sea relate to atmospheric conditions in the North Atlantic, thousands of miles to the northwest.Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) is an Indian multinational oil and gas company earlier headquartered in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, regardbouddhiste.com a Corporation, it's registered office is now at Deendayal Urja Bhavan, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi India.
It is a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) of the Government of India, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Since , Caspian Services Inc. has been at the forefront of the onshore and offshore oil service sector in Kazakhstan. Our ʻindustry bestʼ technologies, tools, and workforce are ready to meet the exacting demands of the oil and gas sector; from international standard geophysical and seismic data acquisition services, to our fleet of 15 shallow draft vessels.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
The leading global oil, gas and energy news resource. Covering the latest oil and gas news including shale, lng, drilling, exploration and production. The development of oil and gas resources in the Caspian region is mostly important for the development of economies in the Central Asian and Transcaucasia.
In the energy sector’s share of gross domestic product (GDP) was an estimated percent in Azerbaijan, percent in Kazakhstan, percent in Turkmenistan (International.
Kazakhstan energy sector. Key players Oil and gas processing The oil refineries: Atirau, Pavlodar and Shymkent. In , the volume of oil processing at these factories totaled million tons, million tons and million tons respectively.
The first two factories are run by KazMunayGaz and the third one is owned and run by PetroKazakhstan.