ByEurope had recovered from severe contraction of the 14th century, produced by plague and marginal agriculture, and was resuming the economic growth that had been the pattern in the 12th and early 13th centuries.
Beginnings Of North European Expansion European overseas expansion after entered a second phase, comparable to developments at home. As Spain declined, so did the Spanish empire and that of Portugal, which was tied to Spain by a Habsburg king after and plagued with its own developing imperial problems.
These new conditions afforded opportunities for northern European states. The Dutch, between andalmost cleared the Atlantic of Spanish warships and took over most of the Portuguese posts in Brazil, Africa, and Asia.
The French and English also became involved on a smaller scale, setting up their global duel for empire in the eighteenth century. Expanding foreign trade, new products, an increasing supply of bullion, and rising commercial risks created new problems, calling for energetic initiatives.
During the sixteenth century the Spanish and Portuguese had depended upon quick profits, and because of weak home industries and poor management, wealth flowed through their hands to northern Europe, where it was invested in productive enterprises.
Later, this wealth generated a new imperial age.
European markets after the sixteenth century were swamped with a bewildering array of hitherto rare or unknown goods. In an era without refrigeration imported spices, such as pepper, cloves, and cinnamon, made spoiled foods palatable.
Sugar became a common substitute for honey, and cocoa, the Aztec sacred beverage, spread throughout Europe. Coffee and tea, from the New World and Asia, soon produced new social habits throughout Europe. North American furs, Chinese silks, and cottons from India and Mexico revolutionized clothing fashion.
Luxury furnishings, using rare woods, ivory, and Oriental carpets appeared more frequently in homes of the wealthy. The use of American tobacco became almost a mania among all classes and contributed further to the booming European market.
Imported gold and, more significantly, silver probably affected the European economy more than all other foreign goods.
After the Spaniards looted Aztec and Inca treasure rooms, the gold flowing from America and Africa subsided to a trickle, but seven million tons of silver poured into Europe before Spanish prices quadrupled and, because most of the silver went to pay for imports, prices in northern Europe more than tripled.
The influx of bullion and the resulting inflation hurt landlords depending on fixed rents and creditors who were paid in cheap money, but the bullion bonanza ended a centuries-long gold drain to the East, with its attendant money shortage.
It also increased the profits of merchants selling on a rising market, thus greatly stimulating north European capitalism. At the opening of the sixteenth century, Italian merchants and money-lenders, mainly Florentines, Venetians, and Genoese, dominated the rising Atlantic economy.
The German Fugger Banking house at Augsburg also provided substantial financing. As the century passed, Antwerp in the southern Netherlands became the economic hub of Europe.EUROPEAN EXPANSION: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS () During the period from to , western Europe centered on an era of overseas exploration and economic expansion that transformed society.
Only the interaction of these two as well as numerous other factors resulted in the world historical consequences of European expansion. Regions and periods Colonial regions and their limits as well as periods and their caesuras offer two possibilities of approaching European colonialism.
European conquest of the New World was motivated by European nation-states' need to gain increasingly scarce resources, compounded by rivalry between nations.
European expansion since delineates a new stage in European expansionism and especially in that of the most successful empire builder, Two additional factors, not unrelated to the enlargement of the British Empire, fed the onset and success of the American War of Independence (–83): first. This assignment will assess the factors behind the economic success of Japan. These factors will be assessed through units of time throughout the Japanese history and how these factors of success have also contributed to . Get an answer for 'What were the main factors that led to the rise of industrialization in the U.S. in the late s?' and find homework help for other America: Pathways to the Present questions.
By the 15th and 16th centuries, European resources were depleting. European expansion since delineates a new stage in European expansionism and especially in that of the most successful empire builder, Two additional factors, not unrelated to the enlargement of the British Empire, fed the onset and success of the American War of Independence (–83): first.
European market. Imported gold and, more significantly, silver probably affected the European economy more than all other foreign goods. After the Spaniards looted Aztec and Inca treasure rooms, the gold flowing from America and Africa subsided to a trickle, but . New crops from the Americas stimulated European population growth, while new sources of mineral wealth facilitated the European shift from feudalism to capitalism.
Improvements in technology and increased international trade enhanced economies both in Europe and the Americas.