Throughout the centuries, scholars and penal reformers have widely documented reform efforts and the shift in punishment philosophies. This shift resulted in corporal punishment methods being abandoned and replaced with incarceration. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the confinement of criminals in prisons expanded across the United States and Europe. As the use of prisons as punishment became common practice, penal innovations throughout continental Europe influenced the development of competing prison discipline systems in the United States.
They have always been solicitous in their care for the sick and held the medical profession in great esteem. In ancient times medicine and religion were closely connected. The priests were the custodians of public health. The dispute as to the propriety of human interference in sickness — regarded as divine retribution — ceased to trouble the Jews, because they came to regard the physician as the instrument through whom God could effect the cure.
Jewish physicians therefore considered their vocation as spiritually endowed and not merely an ordinary profession. By the same token, great demands were made of them, and the ethical standards have always been very high.
The importance of medicine and physicians among the Jews is best seen in the long line of rabbi-physicians, that started during the talmudic period and continued until comparatively recently. Various factors were responsible for this combination of professions.
Medicine was sanctioned by biblical and talmudic law and had an important bearing upon religious matters. Since teaching or studying the word of God for reward was not considered ethical, the practice of medicine was most often chosen as a means of livelihood.
This trend was further strengthened by the fact that during the greater part of the Middle Ages the Jews were excluded from almost all other occupations, including public office, and medicine was left as one of the few dignified occupations by which they could earn their living.
Jews have contributed to medicine both by the creation of new medical concepts and by the transmission of medical knowledge. Lombroso s contribution to criminology was through the medieval Jewish physician-translators that the medical knowledge of the East and much of ancient Greek medical lore was preserved and transmitted to the West.
A general survey of Jews in medicine may be divided into three broad periods: The high standard of medical science in Israel must be mentioned. Not only have Israeli physicians successfully met the challenge of medical problems in a developing country with a mixed population, but they have continued the ancient Jewish medical tradition by teaching and giving practical aid to those developing countries striving to attain the scientific levels of the 20th and 21st century.
The Hebrews were doubtlessly influenced in their medical concepts and practices by the surrounding nations, particularly by Egypt, where medical knowledge was highly developed.
Prevailing superstitions and beliefs in magic medicine were far less accepted and practiced by the Jews, however, than by their neighbors.
But like their contemporaries, the ancient Hebrews attributed health and disease to a divine source. Healing was in the hands of God and the role of doctors was that of helpers or instruments of God.
There are numerous references to physicians and men of healing throughout the Bible. It is always implied, however, that although man may administer treatment, it is God who heals: The title rofe "healer" was therefore never adopted by ancient Jewish physicians; where it occurs it invariably refers to foreign doctors, who were usually assumed to be helpless because they were not aided by God.
Pharmacists and midwives are also mentioned. Hebrew priests had no authority as physicians but rather held the position of health wardens of the community, charged with enforcing the laws pertaining to social hygiene. The uniqueness of biblical medicine lies in its regulations for social hygiene, which are remarkable not only for their period but even by present-day standards.
Hygiene and prophylaxis became religious dogmas intended for the welfare and preservation of the nation. Of the commandments, are of a medical nature. Prevention of epidemics, suppression of prostitution and venereal diseases, frequent washing, care of the skin, strict dietary and sanitary regulations, rules for sexual life, isolation and quarantine, the observance of a day of rest — the Sabbath — these and other provisions inhibited the spread of many of the diseases prevalent in neighboring countries.
The Hebrews were aware of the fact that contagious diseases are spread by direct contact as well as by clothing, household utensils, etc. To prevent the spread of epidemics or infectious maladies they therefore compiled a series of sanitary regulations.
These included precautionary or temporary isolation, quarantine, burning or scalding of infected garments and utensils, thorough scrubbing and smoking out of houses suspected of infection, and scrupulous inspection and purification of the diseased person after recovery Lev. Anyone coming into contact with a corpse or carrion, or suffering from purulent discharges from any part of his body, also required a thorough cleansing of himself and his belongings before being allowed back into the encampment Num.
The garments, weapons, and utensils of soldiers returning to the camp after a battle had to be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected to prevent the spread of diseases possibly picked up during contact with the enemy Num. The danger of infectious bowel diseases spreading through excrement was also recognized and the Bible instructs how to keep the camp clean Deut.
Diseases and Remedies Many diseases are mentioned in the Bible.Criminology: Criminology, scientific study of the nonlegal aspects of crime and delinquency, including its causes, correction, and prevention, from the viewpoints of such diverse disciplines as anthropology, biology, psychology and psychiatry, economics, sociology, and statistics.
Viewed from a legal. Cesare Lombroso, (born Nov. 6, , Verona, Austrian Empire [now in Italy]—died Oct. 19, , Turin, Italy), Italian criminologist whose views, though now largely discredited, brought about a shift in criminology from a legalistic preoccupation with crime to a scientific study of criminals.
The contribution of Lombroso to the development of the science of criminology may briefly be summed up in the following points: 1. Lombroso laid consistent emphasis over the individual personality of the criminal in the incidence of crime.
March IRELAND. The Law Reform Commission. Ardilaun Centre, St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2. Serge Gutwirth () professor of Human Rights, Comparative law, Legal Theory and Methodology at the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), where he studied law, criminology and also obtained a post-graduate degree in technology and science studies.
“Cesare Lombroso’s Criminal Man has long been a classic of criminology. Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter, in offering this finely annotated translation and showing the progression of Lombroso’s thought through five editions of the book, have made a great contribution to a broader understanding of this towering, yet often .