Sample Essays Change is an ongoing process that involves the alternation of one state to another.
RESNIK Freedom of Speech in Government Science Since the early s, researchers, scholars, journalists, and professional organizations have published hundreds of articles, books, and reports on the ethical problems related to industry-funded science, addressing such concerns as conflicts of interest, suppression of data and results, ghost authorship, and abuse of intellectual property laws.
Although the investigative spotlight has focused on privatized science in the past 15 years, government science has received relatively little attention until recently. According to Mooney, President George W. Hansen, director of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAsaid that public affairs staff members were reviewing his upcoming lectures, papers, media interviews, and Web postings.
Hansen accused NASA administrators of trying to censor information that he planned to share with the public. Hansen countered that the administration was trying to intimidate him and that it had taken similar actions to prevent other researchers from communicating with the public about Speech of perpectives warming.
Other scientists working for the federal government have also encountered problems with freedom of speech under the Bush administration. Former Surgeon General Richard Carmona told congressional investigators that federal officials weakened or suppressed public health reports to support a political agenda.
He also said that the administration would not allow him to speak to the public about Speech of perpectives number of different health policy issues, including stem cell research, emergency contraception, sex education, and global health.
Administration officials have also rewritten Environmental Protection Agency EPA reports on global warming for political purposes. Should scientists who work for the government have as much freedom of speech as academic scientists?
What restrictions on speech, if any, can be applied to government science? I argue that government scientists should have freedom of speech but that the government may impose some restrictions on speech to ensure that research meets standards of quality and integrity and that policy messages conveyed to the public are consistent.
However, any restrictions on speech must be applied carefully and cautiously to avoid undermining government science. Nineteenth-century philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill developed an influential account of the importance of freedom of speech in public debate.
According to Mill, social and scientific progress occurs through vigorous debate involving opposing points of view. To generate different points of view, people must have freedom of thought and speech. Progress cannot occur if the majority uses its power to suppress minority viewpoints. Before discussing restrictions on freedom of speech in science, it will useful to distinguish between different types of limitations that the government might impose.
Restrictions on funding are morally, legally, and politically different from restrictions on publication, which includes public discussion and dissemination. Restrictions on funding are unavoidable in societies where there is not enough money to fund every worthwhile project.
Government agencies use peer review committees to decide which research proposals should be funded. Scientists who are denied funding by a federal agency are still free to conduct their research using funds from a different source, such as a private company, university, or foundation.
Restrictions on publication pose a more serious threat to freedom of speech. Denying a person the right to present ideas in a public forum constitutes a significant interference with free speech, because publication is vital to science.
Scientists require freedom of speech not just to discuss matters privately but also to share ideas with their peers and the public at large. Because restrictions on publication can have a much more substantial impact on research than restrictions on funding, this essay will focus on restrictions on publication.
There are two basic models of freedom of speech in research: In the United States, scientists working for academic institutions have unsurpassed freedom of speech.
In most colleges and universities, scientists may publish articles or papers, express political opinions, discuss controversial ideas in classes, or talk to the media with very little administrative oversight or control. As long as they avoid slander, treason, fraud, sexual harassment, or other illegal forms of speech, scientists working in academic institutions are free to say or write almost anything.
Organizations that represent university professors, such as the American Association of University Professors AAUPhave vigorously defended academic freedom.Sympathetic Perspectives Speech Sympathetic Perspectives Speech.
Show Details. Hide Details. From OSHA’s website. Dr. David Michaels, current head of OSHA, made the following speech where he addressed many subjects such as who really pays when workers are injured (the worker, their family and tax payers), the increased trend towards outsourcing labor and poor safety compliance that results, the fact that OSHA compliance is the .
How to Teach Perspective-Taking to Children When I was a child, I had a really hard time choosing between chocolate and vanilla ice cream. It wasn’t that I couldn’t decide which one I liked more because I knew that I loved chocolate the best.
Changing Perspective Essay. By Lauren Bradshaw. First person narration is used in compliance with the confession style direct speech which effectively creates empathy as Josie never lies about her inner feelings. Being illegitimate and belonging to a lower-middle class, Josie’s ideology is strongly affected by the microcosm of a rich.
DAVID B. RESNIK. Freedom of Speech in Government Science. Since the early s, researchers, scholars, journalists, and professional organizations have published hundreds of articles, books, and reports on the ethical problems related to industry-funded science, addressing such concerns as conflicts of interest, suppression of data and .
With 8, thousand people visiting the Alhambra everyday, it is Spain’s most visited monument. Muslim and Nevin Harji made it a point to see Islam’s crown jewel in Spain when they visited Lisbon to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of His Highness the Aga Khan.