Adapted from Figure 1 in McGrath,p.
Emotion Emotion is one type of affect, other types being mood, temperament and sensation for example, pain.
Emotions can be understood as either states or as processes. When understood as a state like being angry or afraidan emotion is a type of mental state that interacts with other mental states and causes certain behaviors.
Understood as a process, it is useful to divide emotion into two parts. The early part of the emotion process is the interval between the perception of the stimulus and the triggering of the bodily response.
The later part of the emotion process is a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression.
This description is sufficient to begin an analysis of the emotions, although it does leave out some aspects of the process such as the subjective awareness of the emotion and behavior that is often part of the emotion response for example, fighting, running away, hugging another person.
The early part of the process is typically taken to include an evaluation of the stimulus, which means that the occurrence of an emotion depends on how the individual understands or "sees" the stimulus.
For example, one person may respond to being laid-off from a job with anger, while another person responds with joy—it depends on how the individual evaluates this event. Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus.
In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli.
The following are some of the features that distinguish emotion from moods. An emotion is a response to a specific stimulus that can be internal, like a belief or a memory. It is also generally agreed that emotions have intentional content, which is to say that they are about something, often the stimulus itself.
Moods, on the other hand, are typically not about anything, and at least some of the time do not appear to be caused by a specific stimulus. Emotions also have a relatively brief duration—on the order of seconds or minutes—whereas moods last much longer. Most theories agree about these features of the emotions.
Other features will be discussed in the course of this article. There is much less agreement, however, about most of these other features that the emotions may or may not have. Evolutionary Theories The evolutionary approach focuses on the historical setting in which emotions developed.
Typically, the goal is to explain why emotions are present in humans today by referring to natural selection that occurred some time in the past. It will help to begin by clarifying some terminology. Evolution is simply "change over generational time" Brandon,p.
Change to a trait can occur because of natural selection, chance, genetic drift, or because the trait is genetically linked with some other trait.
A trait is an adaptation if it is produced by natural selection. And a trait is the result of natural selection only when "its prevalence is due to the fact that it conferred a greater fitness" Richardson,p.
However, a trait can enhance fitness without being an adaptation. One example, noted by Darwin in The Origin of Species, is the skull sutures in newborns: The sutures in the skulls of young mammals have been advanced as a beautiful adaptation for aiding parturition [that is, live birth], and no doubt they facilitate, or may be indispensable for this act; but as sutures occur in the skulls of young birds and reptiles, which have only to escape from a broken egg, we may infer that this structure has arisen from the laws of growth, and has been taken advantage of in the parturition of the higher animals p.
In this case, the evidence from non-mammals indicates that this trait was not selected because it aids live birth, although it later became useful for this task. In order to know that a trait is an adaptation, we have to be familiar with the circumstances under which the selection occurred Brandon, ; Richardson, However, often the historical evidence is not available to establish that a new trait replaced a previous one because the new trait increased fitness.
This is especially true for psychological traits because there is no fossil record to examine. Hence, establishing that an emotion is an adaptation presents some difficult challenges.Theories About Atlantis. Plato. The greek philosopher, Plato, brought to the world, the story of the lost continent of Atlantis.
His story began to unfold for him around B.C. He wrote about this land called Atlantis in two of his dialogues, Timaeus and Critias, around B.C. Plato stated that the continent lay in the Atlantic Ocean near the Straits of Gibraltar until its destruction.
Refining and extending Erik Erikson’s work, James Marcia came up with four Identity Statuses of psychological identity development.
The main idea is that one’s sense of identity is determined largely by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits. There are four theories, which explain why the groups are formed. These include: 1) Propinquity theory: quite often, individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geo-graphical proximity.
In an organization, employees who work/5(K). Socialist definition, an advocate or supporter of socialism. See more. n. "one who advocates socialism," , from French socialiste, or else a native formation based on it, in reference to the teachings of Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French regardbouddhiste.com .
Applying Learning Theories to Online Instructional Design. By Peter J. Patsula, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul. Introduction. The following tutorial consists of five learning modules.
Each module describes a learning theory and how that learning theory can be applied to improving online teaching and training materials. Theories of Group Formation Below is an explanation of the different models of group formation processes by Lewin, Tuckman, McGrath, and Gersick including .