Now you need to refocus your topic. What changes do you need to make in order to account for the available sources? If you chose the topic "Business on the Internet" and focused your efforts on the question of how commercial uses of the Internet are affecting the entire Net, you might not have discovered sufficient sources for your research.
Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, and if there are a good number of them, then separate lists of tables and figures at the beginning of the paper may be expected. Tables and figures should always have descriptive captions, and if they come directly from sources, the sources must be specifically credited in the captions with the same citation style that you use throughout the paper.
Introduction Your introduction is your opportunity to be at your most individual. A paper illustrating the costly effects of poor mine design, for instance, might open with the scenario of how a poorly designed pillar at a salt mine in Louisiana once collapsed, fracturing the surface above and draining an entire lake into the mine.
A paper on the supply and demand of nickel might begin by straightforwardly announcing that the paper will explain the uses of nickel, detail its market structure, and use data to forecast the future supply and demand of the metal.
As examples of how creative an introduction can be, here are the opening lines from a geography paper and a paper on optics, both of which use narrative technique to arouse our interest. Note how the first excerpt uses an "I" narrator comfortably while the second excerpt does not use "I" even though the writer is clearly reflective about the subject matter.
I was driving the endless miles of Interstate 70 crossing Kansas when I began to notice that the exits all looked the same.
Our eyes often receive pictures of the world that are contrary to physical reality. A pencil in a glass of water miraculously bends; railroad tracks converge in the distance.
Normally you will not devote a separate section of the paper to this; in fact, often the thesis or objective is conveniently located either right at the beginning or right at the end of the Introduction. A good thesis statement fits only the paper in which it appears. Avoid the purely mechanical act of writing statements like "The first topic covered in this paper is x.
The second topic covered is y. The third topic is. Here are two carefully focused and thoughtfully worded thesis statements, both of which appeared at the ends of introductory paragraphs: As this paper will show, the fundamental problem behind the Arab-Israeli conflict is the lack of a workable solution to the third stage of partition, which greatly hinders the current negotiations for peace.
Self-Study From the flat state of Indiana, here are two pages on how to write sound thesis statements: Instead, organize the body of your paper into sections by using an overarching principle that supports your thesis, even if that simply means presenting four different methods for solving some problem one method at a time.
Normally you are allowed and encouraged to use section headings to help both yourself and the reader follow the flow of the paper. Always word your section headings clearly, and do not stray from the subject that you have identified within a section. As examples, I offer two sets of section headings taken from essays.
The first is from Dr. Supply and Demand" Industry Structure The Mining and Properties of Asbestos World Resources and Reserves Economic Factors and Supply and Demand Problems Uses of and Substitutes for Asbestos The Issue of Health on Supply and Demand Just by considering the section headings in the above examples, we can begin to see the fundamental structures and directions of the essays, because both sets of headings break the paper topic into its natural parts and suggest some sort of a movement forward through a topic.
Note how these headings—as all section headings should—tell us the story of the paper and are worded just as carefully as any title should be. Most importantly, then, you must use your section headings in the same way that you use topic sentences or thesis statements: When you are stuck for a conclusion, look back at your introduction; see if you can freshly reemphasize your objectives by outlining how they were met, or even revisit an opening scenario from the introduction in a new light to illustrate how the paper has brought about change.
Beware of the temptation to open your final paragraph with "In conclusion," or "In summary," and then summarize the paper. Instead, let your entire conclusion stand as a graceful termination of an argument.
What follows is an excerpt from a conclusion to a paper entitled "Exercise in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Women.
The majority of evidence presented in this paper supports the hypothesis that exercise positively affects bone mineral density in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Significantly, exercise has been shown to increase bone mineral density in premenopausal women even after the teenage years, and it helps preserve the bone mass achieved in the following decades.
There is also evidence that exercise adds a modest, yet significant amount of bone mass to the postmenopausal skeleton. As these findings demonstrate, women of all ages can benefit by regular weight-bearing exercise, an increased intake of calcium-rich foods, and—for postmenopausal women—the maintenance of adequate estrogen levels.
For all women, it is never too late to prevent osteoporosis or lessen its severity by making appropriate lifestyle choices. References Any sources cited must be correctly listed on a References page using the Author-Year or Number system see Chapter 5 of this handbook.This article provides some concrete guidelines that will help you assess whether you have enough references in your paper.
Toggle navigation. Services. Academic - Journal Manuscripts - Multi-revision Editing Key factors influencing the number of references you use.
Wordvice provides high-quality English proofreading and editing services. Can I use web links as references in my research paper?
Update Cancel. ad by Grammarly. Yes, you can use web links in a paper, but you should do it only when it is appropriate. Yes, you can use web links as references in your research paper. For example, government reports, professional conferences, international leaders summit reports.
use references term paper action research reflection paper, kyoko mori yarn essaycheap literature review writing service cathesis schrijven van rossemthe portrayal of women in the odyssey by homercurriculum and instruction dissertation topics. Remember that in college writing, research papers, term papers, and research essays are not simply a repetition of what you have read.
Rather, they are essays: you need to ensure that the material is cited correctly into your paper. If you paraphrase or summarize, you still need to tell readers where the information comes from.
Indent all but the first line of each entry on your reference list page. Chicago Manual of Style Citation. Insert a superscript number in the body of your paper directly after the period of the sentence containing a definition from the textbook.
Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.